Secrets of the Universe
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One of the most intriguing mysteries in modern physics is the apparent preponderance of ordinary matter over antimatter: the Earth, the Solar system, and most likely the Milky Way and the whole observable Universe consist only of matter. The search for antinuclei offers therefore a unique opportunity to discover exotic processes in our Galaxy. I try to explain why the theory of special relativity predicts antimatter, why we expect to live either in a matter or antimatter dominated Universe, and finally comment on some surprising hints for the detection of antihelium nuclei as cosmic rays.
Space, our next frontier, has become increasingly available through low-cost small-satellite technology, COTS sensors and cameras, and commercial launch providers such as SpaceX. We will go on a tour of current and future propulsion systems as well as guidance, navigation and control methods and onto how autonomous multi-robotic platforms can push boundaries for close-up investigation of celestial bodies. Beyond the Moon and Mars, how will we explore and get close to Jupiter's moons such as Europa, Saturn's moons such as Titan and highly sought metal-and mineral-rich asteroids in a sustainable fashion? What are the challenges? What is the purpose? What are the plans for NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA)?
Mariusz Eivind Grøtte
Reacceleration of charged dark matter
Charged particles diffusing in the turbulent magnetic field in the interstellar medium gain energy through the process of second-order Fermi acceleration. This energy gain depletes in turn the energy stored in the magnetic field around the resonance wave-vector of the charged particle. If the enormous amount of Dark Matter surrounding our Galaxy has a non-zero electric charge, it will through this process completely prohibit the development of the magnetic turbulence we observe in the Galaxy today. Thus, we can use this simple principle to put strong constraints on the possible electric charge of Dark Matter.